Summary of Foreclosure Laws by State

StatesNDS has compiled some basic information about state foreclosure laws, provided below. This information is designed to help you understand the process in each state. However, legal information is not legal advice. The laws of every state are different and frequently change. If necessary, contact an NDS representative or seek legal or professional advice according to your situation.

Mortgage and Deed of Trust States

Below you will find each state according to whether they are Mortgage, Deed of Trust or both:

Foreclosure State Summaries

Here are summaries with basic information for individual state foreclosure laws. Timelines will vary depending on a variety of reasons, and are calculated from the date of the foreclosure referral to the actual foreclosure sale date. The timelines noted within are based on uncontested actions and assume no delays. However, delays do – so keep this in mind – every foreclosure is a unique situation, timelines will vary from foreclosure to foreclosure, and from state-to-state. All foreclosures must be conducted under GSE guidelines.

Alabama Foreclosure Laws

  • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (rare)
  • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
  • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
  • Timeline: 120 days
  • Right of Redemption: Yes (12 months)
  • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Alaska Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 180 days
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Not Practical
  • Arizona Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 180 days
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: No
  • Arkansas Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 160 days (non-judicial)
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes – within 12 months of sale
  • California Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (rare)
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 210 days
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: No
  • Colorado Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (usually)
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 240 days
    • Right of Redemption: Yes
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Connecticut Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
    • Timeline: 570 days
    • Right of Redemption: Yes
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • D.C. (Washington District of Columbia)

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust
    • Timeline: 180 days
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Delaware Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
    • Timeline: 360 days
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Florida Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
    • Timeline: 540 days
    • Right of Redemption: Yes
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes – with one year sale
  • Georgia Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 150 days (non-judicial)
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes – within thirty days of sale
  • Hawaii Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 410 days (judicial actions)
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Idaho Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust
    • Timeline: 320 days
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes – within 3 months of sale
  • Illinois Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Primary Security Instrument: Mortgage
    • Timeline: 360 days
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Indiana Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
    • Timeline: 360 days
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Iowa Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Primary Security Instrument: Mortgage
    • Timeline: 330 days
    • Right of Redemption: Yes
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Not Practical
  • Kansas Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
    • Timeline: 210 days
    • Right of Redemption: Yes (3 to 12 months)
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Kentucky Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Primary Security Instrument: Mortgage
    • Timeline: 300 days
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Louisiana Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (Executory and Ordinary Process)
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
    • Timeline: 270 days
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Maine Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
    • Timeline: 450 days
    • Right of Redemption: Yes – three months from date of judgment
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Maryland Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 365 days
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Massachusetts Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 220 days
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Michigan Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 150 days (non-judicial)
    • Right of Redemption: Yes – 6 months
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Minnesota Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
    • Timeline: 150 days
    • Right of Redemption: Yes – six to twelve months
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: No
  • Mississippi Foreclosure Laws

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 150 days (non-judicial)
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Missouri Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 120 days
    • Right of Redemption: Yes (rare and difficult)
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Montana Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 240 days (non-judicial)
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: No
  • Nebraska Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
    • Timeline: 210 days (non-judicial)
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Nevada Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 270 days (non-judicial)
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • New Hampshire Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (rare)
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 150 days
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • New Jersey Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Primary Security Instrument: Mortgage
    • Timeline: 630 days
    • Right of Redemption: Yes (10 days )
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • New Mexico Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Primary Security Instruments: Mortgage
    • Timeline: 360 days
    • Right of Redemption: Yes (30 days)
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • New York Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline (New York City): 870 days (judicial)
    • Timeline (Outside the City): 700 days (judicial)
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes – within three months of delivery of deed
  • North Carolina Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (rare)
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 210 days
    • Right of Redemption: Yes (10 days)
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes- within twelve months of delivery of deed
  • North Dakota Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (usually)
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Primary Security Instrument: Mortgage
    • Timeline: 285 days
    • Right of Redemption: Yes
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Not Practical
  • Ohio Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Primary Security Instrument: Mortgage
    • Timeline: 330 days
    • Right of Redemption: Yes – until sale confirmed
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes – within two years of sale confirmation
  • Oklahoma Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 300 days (judicial)
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Oregon Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 270 days (non-judicial)
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: No
  • Pennsylvania Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Primary Security Instrument: Mortgage
    • Timeline: 380 days
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Rhode Island Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (rare)
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 300 days
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • South Carolina Foreclosure

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Primary Security Instrument: Mortgage
    • Timeline: 300 days
    • Right of Redemption: Yes – thirty days if deficiency right retained
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • South Dakota Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 240 days (judicial)
    • Right of Redemption: Yes – 60 days if vacant, 180 days if occupied
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Tennessee Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (very rare)
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 150 days
    • Right of Redemption: Yes – based on security instrument
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Texas Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Home Equity Loan
    • Timeline: 150 days
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Utah Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instrument: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 210 days
    • Right of Redemption: Yes
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Vermont Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 390 days (judicial)
    • Right of Redemption: Yes – 180 days
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Virginia Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes (rare)
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 150 days
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Washington Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 240 days (non-judicial)
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: No
  • West Virginia Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 170 days
    • Right of Redemption: No
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes
  • Wisconsin Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: No
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 330 days
    • Right of Redemption: Yes – six to twelve months
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Not Practical
  • Wyoming Foreclosure Law

    • Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Non-Judicial Foreclosure Available: Yes
    • Primary Security Instruments: Deed of Trust, Mortgage
    • Timeline: 150 days
    • Right of Redemption: Yes – three months
    • Deficiency Judgments Allowed: Yes